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International Norms

DECLARATION AND CONVENTIONS:

UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a milestone document in the history of human rights. Drafted by representatives with different legal and cultural backgrounds from all regions of the world, the Declaration was proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in Paris on 10 December 1948 as a common standard of achievements for all peoples and all nations. According to article 19 “Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression.” Shortly after the acceptance of this document, one of the places where human rights and freedom of speech is violated the most, Europe at the time being the landfill of two world wars began reorganizing and creating a new legal system.

INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS
Was adopted and opened for signature by United Nations in December 16, 1966; came into effect in 1976. Azerbaijan joined the Covenant in August 1992. According to article 19:
“1. Everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference.
2. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice…

EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS
Accepted on 4th November of 1950 article 10 of this convention states: “Everyone  has  the  right  to  freedom  of  expression.  This  right  shall include freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart information  and  ideas  without  interference  by  public  authority  and  regardless  of  frontiers.” Thus, superiority of this right is recognized in an international scale. In December 2001 Azerbaijan ratified the Convention and the laws came into effect within the country in April 15 2002. On that day and forward Azerbaijani government and citizens obtained the right to appeal to the European Court of Human Rights.

EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON TRANSFRONTIER TELEVISION
The Convention was accepted by UN on 5th of May 1989 and entry into force on 1st of May 1993.

DECLARATİONS AND RECOMMENDATİONS OF THE COMMİTTEE OF MİNİSTERS TO MEMBER STATES

Recommendation R(80)1 on sports and television (24 January 1980).

RECOMMENDATIONS AND RESOLUTIONS OF THE PARLIAMENTARY ASSEMBLY:

Recommendation 1950 (2011) “The protection of journalists’ sources”

Recommendation 1897 (2010) “Respect for media freedom”

Recommendation 1882 (2009) “The promotion of Internet and online media services appropriate for minors”

Recommendation 1878 (2009) “The funding of public service broadcasting”

Recommendation 1855 (2009) “The regulation of audiovisual media services”

Recommendation 1848 (2008) “Indicators for media in a democracy”

Recommendation 1836 (2008) “Realising the full potential of e-learning for education and training”

Resolution 1577 and Recommendation 1814 (2007) “Towards decriminalisation of defamation”

Recommendation 1789 (2007) “Professional education and training of journalists”

Recommendation 1783 (2007) “Threats to the lives and freedom of expression of journalists”

Recommendation 1773 (2006) “The 2003 guidelines on the use of minority languages in the broadcast media and the Council of Europe standards: need to enhance co-operation and synergy with the OSCE”

Recommendation 1768 (2006) “The image of asylum seekers, migrants and refugees in the media”

Recommendation 1706 (2005) “Media and terrorism”

Recommendation 1702 (2005) “Freedom of the press and the working conditions of journalists in conflict zones”

Recommendation 1641 (2004) “Public service broadcasting”

Recommendation 1589 (2003) “Freedom of expression in the media in Europe” 

Recommendation 1586 (2002) “The digital divide and education”

Recommendation 1555 (2002) “The image of women in the media”

Recommendation 1543 (2001) “Racism and xenophobia in cyberspace”

Recommendation 1506 (2001) “Freedom of expression and information in the media in Europe“

Recommendation 1466 (2000) “Media education”

Recommendation 1407 (1999) “Media and democratic culture”

Recommendation 1332 (1997) “The scientific and technical aspects of the new information and communications technologies”

Recommendation 1314 (1997) “New technologies and employment” 

Recommendation 1277 (1995) “Migrants, ethnic minorities and media”

Recommendation 1276 (1995) “The power of the visual image”

Recommendation 1265 (1995) “Enlargement and European cultural co-operation”

Recommendation  1228 (1994) “Cable networks and local television stations: their  importance for Greater Europe”

Recommendation 1216 (1993) “European cultural co-operation”

Recommendation 1215 (1993) “The ethics of journalism” 

Recommendation 1147 (1991) “Parliamentary responsibility for the democratic reform of broadcasting” 

Recommendation 1136 (1990) “A European policy on alcohol”

Recommendation 1122 (1990) “The revival of the countryside by means of information technology”

Recommendation 1110 (1989) “Distance teaching”

Recommendation 1098 (1989) “East-West audiovisual co-operation” 

Recommendation 1096 (1989) “European Convention on Transfrontier Television” 

Recommendation 1077 (1988) “Access to transfrontier audiovisual media during election campaigns” 

Recommendation 1067 (1987) “The cultural dimension of broadcasting in Europe” 

Recommendation 1043 (1986) “Europe’s linguistic and literary heritage”

Recommendation 1037 (1986) “Data protection and freedom of information”

Recommendation 996 (1984) “Council of Europe work relating to the media”

Recommendation 963 (1983) “Cultural and educational means of reducing violence”

Recommendation 952 (1982) “International means to protect freedom of expression by  regulating commercial advertising”

Recommendation  926 (1981) “Questions  raised by cable and television  and by direct satellite broadcasts”

Recommendation 862 (1979) “Cinema and the state”

Recommendation 834 (1978) “Threats to the freedom of the press and television”

Recommendation 815 (1977) “Freedom of expression and the role of the writer in Europe”

Recommendation 749 (1975) “European broadcasting”

Recommendation 748 (1975) “The role and management of national broadcasting”

Recommendation 747 (1975) “Press concentrations”

Recommendation 582 (1970) “Mass communication media and human rights”